четверг, 23 мая 2019 | О ПРОЕКТЕ | КОНТАКТЫ

Выборы-2019 и наблюдатели Путина: Что Украине делать с россиянами от ОБСЕ Ситуация с недопуском российских наблюдателей от ОБСЕ на украинские выборы далеко не однозначная

Украина всерьез готовится защищать избирательный процесс от российских «наблюдателей». Список всех лиц и организаций, причастных к строительству антироссийских электоральных шанцев, включает в себя практически весь украинский истеблишмент.

Парламент кавалерийским наскоком, менее чем за трое суток, принимает «Закон о внесении изменений к некоторым законам Украины относительно наблюдения за избирательным процессом в Украине».

Петр Алексеевич Порошенко обещает отдать приказ Государственной пограничной службе не пускать наблюдателей от России на президентские выборы 2019 года.

Комитет избирателей Украины предупреждает, что на президентских выборах в марте 2019 года могут присутствовать фейковые миссии наблюдателей, которые финансируются Россией.

Служба внешней разведки публично утверждает, что на работу российских спецслужб по вмешательству в украинские выборы будет потрачено около 350 млн. долларов США. Как именно можно потратить такую сумму на подобное мероприятие, представить, конечно, сложно, а СВР каких-то уточнений не предоставляет. Впрочем, оставим эти вопросы на совести разведчиков, и попробуем взглянуть на ситуацию беспристрастно.

Пока речь идет о «русской самодеятельности» — по типу наблюдательных миссий «от СНГ», от «ОДКБ», от «Союзного государства России и Беларуси» — все сказанные слова, сделанные заявления и принятые нормативные акты можно считать безусловно полезными и уместными. Люди, у которых вместо моральных обязательств в голове будут только указания московского руководства, могут как подорвать легитимность выборов в случае, если их выиграет неприемлемый для Москвы кандидат, так и совершать какие-то действия в пользу промосковских кандидатов.

Но ситуация с наблюдателями из ОБСЕ радикально иная. Конфликт вокруг того, могут ли быть владельцы российского паспорта в составе наблюдательной миссии наблюдателей за выборами от Бюро по демократическим институтам и правам человека ОБСЕ, или не могут, разгорелся еще в середине января. Тогда министр иностранных дел Украины Климкин сообщил главе бюро Ингеборге Сольрун Гисладоттир о том, что граждан России в качестве наблюдателей в Украине видеть не хотят. В ответ на что та напомнила, что существует целый ряд международно-правовых решений, которые обязывают Украину принимать наблюдателей, несмотря на картинки на обложке паспорта. В частности, принимать наблюдателей Украина обязана согласно с Копенгагенским документом ОБСЕ от 1990 года, Хартией европейской безопасности ОБСЕ 1999 года, и решением Совета министров ОБСЕ №19/06, принятым в 2006 году. О выходе ни из какого-либо из этих документов Киев вроде не объявлял.

На том конфликт будто «завис» — для того, чтобы вспыхнуть с новой силой. На этот раз запрещать россиянам въезд решила Верховная Рада. А спецпредставитель США по Украине Курт Волкер деликатно, но четко заявил, что наблюдателей из России можно допустить к работе на выборах украинского президента, если они войдут в состав миссии ОБСЕ.

А спикер миссии ОБСЕ в Украине Томас Рейнер вчера сообщил, что список наблюдателей из 92 человек находится на утверждении в украинском МИД. Двое из них — россияне.

Таким образом, принимая вчерашний закон, Верховная Рада поставила МИД в интересную позицию. Если там откажутся принять россиян из ОБСЕ — то нарушат зафиксированные в международных соглашениях обещания. К слову, по Венской конвенции о праве международных договоров от 1969 года эти обещания имеют более высокий юридический статус, чем национальное законодательство (пока не противоречат Конституции). А Украина является участником этой конвенции.

Ну, а если примут — то нарушат свежеиспеченный закон, который исключений для ОБСЕ не предусматривает.

Таким образом, Украина становится перед выбором. Пустить на свою территорию двух россиян — которые, возможно, будут агентами ФСБ, или ГРУ, или еще какой-то трехбуквенной российской штуковины. Но которые будут работать в составе (и, наверное, под присмотром) большой международной команды. И вряд ли смогут реально повлиять хоть на выборы, хоть на общий отчет. А альтернативой их допуска является возможность публично продемонстрировать собственную готовность «вспоминать» про международное право, когда это нам выгодно, и «забывать» — когда наши желания не совпадают с нашими обещаниями. Над этим выбором стоит подумать.

Особенно в свете того, что и бюрократы ОБСЕ, раздраженные поведением Киева, гипотетически могут пойти на резкие движения. Банально отозвав остальных наблюдателей.


Тарас Паньо / Depo.ua
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