воскресенье, 26 мая 2019 | О ПРОЕКТЕ | КОНТАКТЫ

Кризис вокруг ЦИК: Выборы президента оказались под угрозой Ситуация вокруг ЦИКа показал неспособность политиков идти на компромисс

Кризис, который возник вокруг назначения новых членов Центральной избирательной комиссии, продемонстрировал неспособность украинских политиков сесть за стол переговоров ради нахождения компромисса. Конфликт достиг апогея тогда, когда в июле фракция президента решила заблокировать работу парламента, пригрозив не голосовать за какие-либо решения, пока не будут назначены новые члены ЦИКа. Шантаж не удался, парламент остался дееспособным и без БПП. Последние вынуждены были вернуться в зал заседаний и снова искать компромисс. Но этого сделать не удалось: Верховная Рада ушла на каникулы ни с чем. Почему парламент рискует провалить голосование за 13 членов ЦИКа и осенью и какими могут быть последствия нерешенного кризиса, в комментарии Апострофу рассказал заместитель председателя Центральной избирательной комиссии Андрей Магера.

Невозможность назначить новых членов ЦИКа возникла в силу таких факторов, как отсутствие правовой и политической культуры. Согласно законодательству, члены ЦИКа назначаются на должность (семь лет) и увольняются Верховной Радой по представлению президента. Это означает, что участие в формировании состава ЦИКа принимают сразу два высших института власти. Желание только президента или парламента для этого недостаточно. Они вынуждены искать общую позицию по вопросу кадрового состава ЦИКа. Здесь невозможно переломить кого-то одного, здесь нужно находить консенсус. И тот факт, что этот процесс уже длится четыре года, свидетельствует о том, что ни консенсуса, ни уровня политической и правовой культуры, ни понимания роли этих высших органов власти в правовой системе государства нет.

Как разблокировать эту ситуацию на сегодняшний день? Наиболее вероятный сценарий – из существующих 14-ти кандидатур, где шесть выдвинуты от президентской силы, главе государства нужно отозвать двух кандидатов и внести одного человека от «Оппозиционного блока». Таким образом у нас получится 13 кандидатур на 13 вакансий, то есть в ЦИКе будут представлены все парламентские фракции. Это будет соответствовать не только Конституции и положением о ЦИКе, но и документам международных организаций. Даже при таком раскладе президентская фракция будет больше всего представителей среди всех фракций.

Но я не уверен, что эта ситуация сдвинется с мертвой точки. Если бы меня спросили еще два месяца назад, будут ли назначены новые члены ЦИКа, я бы с вероятностью в 99% ответил «да». Сейчас у меня такой уверенности нет. Поэтому я рассматриваю разные варианты, в том числе и такой, когда нынешний ЦИК проведет президентские выборы в 2019 году.

Существует риск того, что 13 членов ЦИКа могут уволить, но не назначать новых. В таком случае в комиссии останется два члена, срок полномочий которых истекает лишь в 2021 году. Для работы ЦИКа нужен кворум – 10 человек. Если будут назначены еще как минимум восемь человек, то кворум для работы появится. В противном случае комиссия не сможет организовывать избирательный процесс.

Хотя сценарий, когда членов ЦИКа будет 10, тоже не слишком оптимистичен. Дело в том, что решения Комиссии, согласно закону, принимаются от общего состава, то есть 15 человек. Таким образом, не менее восьми членов должны проголосовать за постановление, независимо от того, сколько членов комиссии есть в наличии. Здесь простая арифметика: восемь голосов поддержки из 15-ти легче найти, чем с 10-ти. Это не говоря уже о том, что выбирать руководство комиссии будет очень сложно.

Если власть окажется неспособной назначить достаточное количество членов для кворума, это может привести к непроведению выборов. Но я бы не хотел, чтобы мои слова воспринимали как некий намек. До 31 марта 2019 года (дата президентских выборов – ред.) еще очень много времени…

Неспособность своевременно решать кадровые вопросы не красит украинское государство в глазах международного сообщества. Но, как по мне, это меньшее зло, чем норма в законе о ЦИКе, которая существовала до осени 2014 года: после окончания срока полномочий член ЦИК не мог бы выполнять свои обязанности. Если бы до сих пор существовала эта норма, мы бы оказались в ситуации, когда новый состав ЦИКа не назначен, а предыдущий уже не может выполнять свои обязанности. Вакуум власти – это худшее, что может быть.



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