четверг, 20 июня 2019 | О ПРОЕКТЕ | КОНТАКТЫ

Виталий Портников: Мы все живем в стране Лукьянова Наследие бывшего председателя Верховного Совета СССР оказалось долговечнее его долгой жизни

Смерть последнего председателя Верховного Совета СССР Анатолия Лукьянова пройдёт незамеченной для большинства украинских граждан.

Ближайший соратник Михаила Горбачева, который предал своего благодетеля в августе 1991 года ради союза с членами ГКЧП – но так и не осмелился войти в состав комитета путчистов, Лукьянов не выглядит яркой политической фигурой. Но при этом все мы живем в условиях, которые созданы его политическими расчетами. И это не преувеличение.

Именно Лукьянов является автором концепции, согласно которой удержание советских республик должно происходить путём провоцирования раскола и межнациональных конфликтов в них. Эта концепция была активно подхвачена чекистами, которые добивались  усиления своей роли в условиях новой нестабильности. Но ее спонсором был именно союзный центр – «16-я республика», по меткому определению одного из советских журналистов-чекистов. Анатолий Лукьянов был не просто главой парламента этой «16-й республики», он был архитектором ее выживания и, как сейчас говорят, «куратором» ее сепаратистских проектов.

С Литвой – первой из взбунтовавшихся республик – расправиться с помощью национальных конфликтов не получалось. Русских там было не очень много и хотя союзный центр пытался активировать польское национальное движение, полякам он традиционно не доверял. Зато уже в Латвии и Эстонии шовинисты развернулись: в противовес Народным фронтам, которые выступали за самостоятельность республик создали интерфронты, стали говорить о «русской Риге» и «русской Нарве». Но настоящая катастрофа началась, когда взялись за Грузию и Молдову. Конфликты в Абхазии, Южной Осетии, Приднестровье не урегулированы до сих пор и мало кто помнит, что начинались они еще когда существовал Советский Союз.

С помощью аналогичного инструмента пытались подорвать и власть Ельцина в РСФСР. Ответом союзного центра на суверенитет России стала суверенизация российских автономий – этот процесс тогда активно поддерживали в Кремле. Последствия этой суверенизации станут очевидны уже после краха СССР. Ни одна автономная республика союзной так и не стала просто потому, что исчез Советский Союз. Более того, готовность Ельцина согласиться с его исчезновением была связана не только с желанием избавиться от Горбачева, но и со стремлением лишить российские автономии возможности выхода из состава России. Однако сами процессы суверенизации не остановились, их результатом стали две чеченские войны и окончательное оформление в самой России авторитарного чекистского режима.

Почему концепция Лукьянова не применялась тогда к Украине объяснить просто. После победы Ельцина на выборах председателя Верховного Совета РСФСР, а потом и президента России именно Украина стала главной надеждой «16-й республики». Зато уже после краха Советского Союза, когда Лукьянов превратился в политического пенсионера, его подходы были в полной мере унаследованы новым российским руководством. Если в своей стране новый Кремль безжалостно подавлял попытки отделиться от России, то у соседей он помогал сепаратистам, поддерживал их, создавал новые конфликты. Вице-президент России Александр Руцкой лично приехал в Тирасполь поддержать власти Приднестровья – несмотря на то, что руководство этой придуманной в Москве республики поддержало ГКЧП, а президент Молдовы Ион Снегур поддержал Ельцина. «Суверенитет» Приднестровья стала обеспечивать российская армия. С Абхазией и Осетией Ельцин обманул и первого грузинского президента Звиада Гамсахурдиа, и его преемника  Эдуарда Шеварднадзе.

Но самое важное – так это то, что в Кремле решили опробовать «инструмент сдерживания» в Украине, раз уж эта страна не хочет строить новое союзное государство. Так и дошли до аннексии Крыма и оккупации Донбасса. И в результате не только грузины с молдаванами, но и мы с вами стали жить в стране Лукьянова, стране, которая не контролирует собственные границы. Наследие бывшего председателя Верховного Совета СССР оказалось долговечнее его долгой жизни.


Виталий Портников / Эспрессо
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